This series of images are courtesy of JStor and meet their copyrights as covered under Terms and Conditions of Use for Early Journal Content. The images herein displayed come from various articles published in The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography published in 1903, 1904 and 1905. For specific volume and issue number see each series herein represented. Each image was OCRed and the resultant text placed within a hidden HTML element, facilitating the search engine of this site.
This series of images represents the translations, in part, from the German to English of several diaries of Moravian missionaries of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania during their travels through Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. They are a wealthy of knowledge for German Baptist Brethren historians and researchers and are thus brought together for the first time. Assuredly a debt of gratitude is owed to Rev. William J. Hinke and Charles E. Kemper.
Note: though the last image in this series states that the series was to be continued, it never was. A search thru 1912 of The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography failed to locate the continuation.
love-feast, in connection with the communion by bread and wine; and with these sacred rites is joined the service of feet-washing, following the example of Christ as outlined in St. John, 13th chapter. The Dunkers combat pride, and practice plainness of dress. They endeavor to avoid law suits, and teach peace in personal as well as national relations; they oppose secret, oath-bound societies, divorce, slavery and intemperance. At certain periods in their history they have opposed higher education; but the organizers of the sect were educated men, and at present they own and operate ten or a dozen colleges in the United States. For authentic accounts of the Dunkers in brief, I would refer the reader to (1) The New International Enclycopaedia (Dodd, Meade & Co.), Vol. VIII, pp. 273. 274; (2) The Schaff-Herzog Enclycopaedia of Re/igious Knowledge, Vol. IV, pp. 2401-2404. For similar accounts of the Sieben-Taeger, see the latter of the two references just given; also New Int. Encyc., Vol. II, pp. 459, 460. For authentic and complete accounts of the Dunkers, and in their connection, yet in their distinction, of the Sieben-Taeger, also see (1) The History of tile German Baptist Brethren, by George N. Falkenstein. Germantown, Penn.; (2) The History of the Brethrm, by Dr. M. G. Brumbaugh, published by the Brethren Publishing House, Elgin, Ill. JOHN WALTER WAYLAND. TOMB OF MRS. URSULA (BYRD) BEYER LEY. Some years prior to the Civil War the tomb of Usurla, daughter of William Byrd (1st) and wife of Robert Beverley, the historian, remained in the churchyard at Jamestown, almost intact. A visitor fortunately copied the epitaph and sent it to a newspaper. It is as follows: [Arms.] .. Here lyeth the body of Ursula Beverley late wife of Robert Beverley, daughter of ye Hon'ble Col. William Byrd, who departed this life the last day of October 1698, being much lamented of all that knew her. Aged 16 years, 11 months and 2 daies." During the years immediately preceding the war the tomb was mutilated, and about 1861 only a piece containing the arms was left. Dr. Frank Hall, a Confederate soldier, while doing sentry duty in the churchyard, made on July 1, 1861, a sketch of the fragment. We are indebted to Miss Jane Chapman Slaughter for the copy of the drawing published in this number of the Magazine, and for information of its existence.
IV, page 2404, in which place may be found a fair and discriminating account of the several sects in question: "The Tunkers are often confounded with the other peace sects, in Pennsylvania, of German origin, especially with the Mennonites, the Amish, Schwenckfelders, etc.; but they have no historical connection, and differ from them in some important particulars." Another quotation from Schaft-Harzog, Vol. IV, page 2403, may be allowed as fairly describing the Ephrata Society (the particular sect of Sieben-taeger with which we are here concerned): "The Sieben-Taeger, or German Seventh-day Baptists, are a secession from the Tunkers. They are now , nearly extinct as a denomination, but at one time existed in considerable numbers at Ephrata, Lancaster county, Penn., where, under Conrad Beissel. they formed a monastic community in 1732; and colonies were afterward formed near York, Bedford and Snow Hill. Beissel, a native of Germany, came to this country in 1720, and settled at Mill Creek, where he was baptized by Peter Becker, the Tunker minister of the Germantown church, in 1725. He published a pamphlet protesting against the change of the sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week, and also advocating celibacy as the higher order of Christian life." It was earlier than 1732, however, probably 1728, that Beissel, who had been baptized by the Dunker bishop, Peter Becker, in 1724, began the movement which formed the Ephrata Society. Community of goods was at first the rule at Ephrata, but was afterwards abandoned, at least in part. Celibacy was enjoined upon those who retired to the cloisters, and was recommended to others, but was not required of them. They adopted a garb similar to that of the Capuchins, and assumed, upon entering the order, monastic names. Having now succeeded, I trust, in setting the Dunkers clearly apart—showing what and who they are not—I have only left to tell, generally and briefly, who and what they are. The Dunkers (Brethren, or German Baptist Brethreh), are a large body of Christians, living chiefly in Pennsylvania, Maryland. Virginia, West Virginia. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, and California, with branch congregations and missons in Canada, Sweden, Norway, France, Switzerland, Asia Minor and India. They hold the Bible as the Word of God, and the New Testament as their creed. In faith they are orthordox and evangelical. They believe in the Trinity of the Godhead, in the divinity of each of the three Persons, in future reward and punishments. Faith, repentance and baptism are held to be the conditions of forgiveness of sin and the gift of the Holy Ghost. They administer baptism by trine, face-forward, immersion. They perpetuate the Apostolic agape, or
kers.] Their habit seems to be peculiar to themselves, consisting of a long tunic or coat, reaching down to their heels, with a sash or girdle round the waist, and a cap or hood hanging from the shoulders. They do not shave the head or beard. " 'The men and women have separate habitations and distinct governments. For these purposes they erected two large, wooden buildings, one of which is occupied by the brethren, the other by the sisters of the society; and in each of them there is a banqueting-room, and an apartment for public worship; for the brethren and sisters do not meet together even at their devotions. " 'They used to live chiefly upon roots and other vegetables, the rules of their society not allowing them ftesh, except upon particular occasions, when they hold what they call a love-feast, at which time the brethren and sisters dine together in a large apartment and eat mutton, but no other meat. [The Dunkers do perpetuate the Apostolic lovefeast - a-gape—at which the meat used is almost invariably mutton, or veal.] In each of their little cells they have a bench fixed, to serve the purpose of a bed, and a small block of wood for a pillow. They allow of marriages, but consider celebacy as a virtue. " 'The principal tenet of the Tunkers appears to be this—that future happiness is only to be obtained by penance and outward mortifications in this life, and that, as Jesus Christ, by his meritorious sufferings, became the Redeemer of mankind in general, so each individual of the human race, by a life of abstinence and restraint, may work out his own salvation. Nay, they go so far as to admit of works of supererogation, and declare that a man may do much more than he is in justice or equity obliged to do, and that his superabundant works may, therefore, be applied to the salvation of others.' " This is, perhaps, the climax, but there is more of the same sort. We can excuse Howe in some measure, perhaps, because he only followed in his account what he regarded as a trustworthy publication, and I have found almost the identical words that Howe quotes in Edwards' Enclycopaedia of Religious Know/edge; but he is grievously in error, nevertheless. As a matter of fact, many German Dunkers did settle in Botetourt county at an early period, and their descendants—most of them still Dunkers—number thousands in Botetourt and adjoining counties to-day; but what Howe says here is not descriptive, except in the particulars I have indicated, of these people, either then or now. What he says is, I suppose, true in the main of the Ephrata Society; but it is not, and never was, true of the Dunkers. The Dunkers have been confused not only with their ascetic off-shoot, the Ephrata Society, but also with other sects better known. I quote from the Schaff-Herzog Enc/ycopaedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol.
happy hereafter, but first must pass through punishment according to their Sins." Dr. Walker here has fallen into a mass of confusion that had doubtless bewildered other men before him, and that certainly has blinded hundreds to the truth since his day; and it is to make another effort, in behalf of justice and historical truth, to clear up this confusion, that I beg space for these lines. The facts in brief are these: The Ephrata Society, who were an offshoot of the Dnnker sect, were Sabbatarians and ascetics; yet they retained a few of the principles and practices of the parent body. Often, therefore, they were called Dunkers; often, on the other hand, through a similar lack of discrimination, the Dunkers were confused with the Slbbatarians, and, in consequence, charged with their ascetic practices and heretical doctrines. These misconceptions have clung to the subject with the characteristic persistency of error, from generation to generation, and even in our own day are by no means entirely dispelled. In the realm of fiction they have found a congenial atmosphere; and even in sober history they have taken deep root. Howe, the historian, whose book, Virginia: Its History and Antiquities, is eagerly sought after and highly prized by students and librarians of to-day, wrote a hundred years after Dr. Walker; yet he follows the same wrong path. Indeed, he gets far further into the maze of error, and he is probably still leading multitudes after him. In his sketch of Botetourt county (page 203), he says: "At the small village of Amsterdam, 5 miles s. of Fincastle, there is a large brick church, lately built by the Dunkards The Dunkers at Amsterdam are descendants of Germans who emigrated to Pennsylvania. The following, regarding the tenets and practices of this sect, is from a published account: " 'The Tunkers are a denomination of Seventh-Day Baptists, which took its rise in the year 1724. [The Tunker sect originated in Germany in 1708. Beissel, who afterwards founded the monastic sect, was baptized by a Tunker bishop, near Philadelphia, in 1724.] It was founded by a German, who, weary of the world, retired to an agreeable solitude within sixty miles of Philadelphia, for the more free exercise of religious contemplation. Curiosity attracted followers, and his simple and engaging manners made them proselytes. They soon settled a little colony, called Ephrata, in allusion to the Hebrews, who used to sing psalms on the border of the river Euphrates. This denomination seem to have obtained their name from their baptizing their new converts by plunging. [The terms Tunker and Dunker did arise from the mode of baptizing by immersion, or dipping, frem Ger. tunken, to dip.] * * They use trine immersion, with laying on the hands and prayer, even when the person baptized is in the water. [This is true of the Dun
HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL NOTES AND QUERIES. THE DUNKERS AND THE SIEBEN-TAEGER. (Communicated) In Volume Xl, page 125, of the Virgitlia Magazine of History and Biography, the following passage appears as a translation from a Moravian diary of 1749; "We were only a few miles from the Seventh Day Baptists [Dunkers] who live here at the New River. But we had enough of the description which the people gave of them." The editor of the translation makes the mistake here of identifying the Seventh Day Baptists with the Dunkers. In the next issue of the magazine, however, he amends the passage, saying: "It ought to read: 'We were only a few miles from the Sabbatarians' [Sieben-taeger). instead of Seventh Day Baptists."—Va. Hist. Mag., Vol. Xl, page 234, note. In the same place he also shows that the community at New river were members of the Ephrata Society. etc. In the last issue of this magazine. Vol. XII, No.2, on page 147, it is said of two Sabbatarians who were found several miles southwest of Staunton by the Moravian brethren on October 25. 1753: "These Sabbatarians were evidently members of the Ephrata colony at the New River." These notes, from which I have quoted make it pretty clear that the New river Sabbatarians, otherwise Sieben-taeger, belonged to the Pennsylvania sect known as the Ephrata Society; but whether the Dunkers were Seventh Day Baptists, or not, is still left in more or less obscurity. The confusion as to the real character of the Dunkers, is "worse confounded" in the quotation from Dr. Thomas Walker, given in connection with the citation I have made last above. Dr. Walker writes: "He [English) has a mill which is the furthest back except one lately built by the sect of people who call themselves the Brotherhood of Euphrates [Ephrata] and are commonly called Dunkards, who are the upper inhabitants on the New River. * * The Dunkards are an odd people who make it a matter of Religion not to shave their Beards, Iy on Beds, or eat Flesh. * * The unmarried have no private Property, but live on a common Stock. They don't baptize either young or old, they keep their Sabbath on Saturday, and hold that all men shall be
ta County. In 1758 Valentine Sevear was a resident of Culpeper County, Va. Boogher, Gleanings of Virginia History. p. 70. He probably removed to Culpeper after disposing of his Augusta lands, but subsequently returned to the latter county. Idem, p. 146. John Anderson, mentioned in note 26, was one of the flrst Justices of Augusta County upon its organization in 1745. Waddell's Annals of Augusta County, 1902, pp. 52-332; Boogher, Gleanings of Virginia History, pp. 308-23. EXTRACTS FROM VIRGINIA COUNTY RECORDS. A BILL OF LADING, 1674. [Bills of lading and exchange were not infrequently recorded in the books of the county courts.] *: 9: 12: 13: Shipped by the grace of God in Good order 3: 15: 16: 8: 4: & well Conditioned by John Fitz. Randolph 7: 5: in & upon the Good shipp called the Constant Endeavour whereof is master under God for this present Voyage John Pawling & now rideing att Anchor in the River of Rappahannock & by God's grace bound for the port of London to say Tenn hogsheads of Virginia Tobacco being marked & numbered as in the Margent; And are to be delivered in the like good order & well conditioned att the aforesaid port in London (the danger of the seas excepted) unto Lt. Collonell John Searles, or to his Assignes, he or they paying Freight for the said Goods Tenn Pounds sterling # Tunn with primage & Havarage accustomed for witness whereof the Master or purser of the said Shipp hath affirmed to three bills of Lading all of the Tenor * At this place in the bill of lading was the shipper's brand—a mark which cannot be reproduced in type. It represents a large "R," with the figure "4" at the top, and crossed compasses at the bottom
CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS. Vol. XI, p. 118, note *. Omit the last sentence. Colonel Thomas Cresap settled at Old Town, Md. See Magazinie XI, 236, note. Idem, p. 125, third line from bottom. Omit Robert Lewis. The name of this Englishman is unknown. Robert Luhny (Loony) lived at the James river. See Magazine XII, 82, 152. Idem, p. 127. The notes on this page ought to have been reversed. Idem, p. 127, note *. It is not entirely certain that Jacob Baer, Sr., removed to Virginia. His name occurs in the assessment lists of Conestoga townsnip, Lancaster Co., Pa, in 1724-5. See Ellis & Evans, History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, p. 21. His two sons, John and Jacob, Jr., settled near Elkton in 1740 and married daughters of Adam Miller, as stated. Idem, p. 129, note ‡. Mr. Schmidt, originally a dentist, officiated occasionally as pastor among the Lutherans at New Hanover, Pa., from 1736 to 1743. On the arrival of Muehlenberg he went to Virginia, where he preached for a number of years. In 1747 Muehlenberg met him at Frederick, Md. See Hallesche Nachrichten, New Ed., Vol. I, pp. 335, 425. Mr. Schnell also refers to him in 1747 as being at Frederick. Idem, p. 374, note *. The main reasons why Schnell did not wish to go through the Irish settlements are no doubt correctly stated by J. A. W., (Magazinie XII, 203.) At the same time it must be admitted that not much love was lost between the Germans and the Irish. See Magazine XI, 126, XII, 68, 140. Idem, p. 379, note *. The note relative to the several locations of Orange Court House, Virginia, is somewhat in error. The first court house was located near Sommerville's Ford, about four miles west of
load for nothing. Two miles from our land we passed over the "Bufflers" [Buffalo] Creek, the passage of which was hard. A mile from our land we ate dinner. Bro. Gottlob and Nathanael had gone to the next plantation, which adjoins our boundary line. The people presented him with several bushels of turnips. Finally, at one o'clock, we came to the boundary line of our land,10 of which we were all very glad. We were heartily welcomed by our dear Gottlob and Nathanael. We tlhanked ovr Saviour very much that he had graciously brought us thus far and helped us through all difficulties. It is true, it frequently looked very dangerous, and often we knew no way out, but we always succeeded better than we imagined. We drove three miles farther on the new road, then turned to the left and cut another road, two and a half miles, to the little house which our brethren had found yesterday. Here we arrived in the eveninig and took up our quarters in our little hut. It is just large enough so that we can all lie round about along the wall. We at once made preparations for a little love feast, during whichi the wolves howled fiercely. With gratitude to God we lay down to rest, our dear Gottlob sleeping in his hammock. (TO BE CONTINUED) 10 In 1751, Lord Granville offered to the Moravians one hunldred thousand acres of land in North Carolina. On November 29, 1751, the offer was accepted by the Brethren in London. In the fall of the followinlg year, a party of Moravians, headed by Bishop Spangenberg, were sent to North Carolina to survey the land at a suitable place. In September, 1752, the Moravians, with a surveyor and two guides, started oni their perilous journey from Edentown. In December, 1752, after great difficulties, they reached the Yadkiin river. "Ten miles from the Yadkin river on the upper Pennsylvania road and some twenty miles from the Virginia line," along the Muddy creek, 72-73,000 acres were surveyed. The survey was approved by Lord Granville oni August 17, 1753. The diary of Spangenberg, from September 13, 1752-January 8, 1753, is published in the Colonial Records of North Carolina, Vol. V, pp. 1-14. The settlement, at first called Wachovia, is now Winston-Salem, in Forsythe county, N. C. For a full and interesting history of this settlement, see History of Wachovia in North Carolina, by John Henry Clewell. New York, 1902.
with Bro. Haberland and Herman Loesch across the river in the canoe, swimming their horses across. They intended to go to Mr. Altem to-day, who knows our land very well, in order to go with him to our land to-morrow, to select a place where we could rest temporarily till we could find the right place to settle. Bru. Grube stayed with the rest of the brethren on this side of the river, because the water was still too high. In the evening a German boy canme to us, who lives on the "Etkin" [Yadkin]. He had bought eleven quarts of salt at the Smith River for which hie paid half a dollar [½ Thaler]. On November 16, we rose early to cross the river. As the banks were very steep we had to tie a tree to the wagon, which we detached as soon as the wagon reached the water. The stream was very rapid and carried the front horses down a short distance. The water almost ran into our wagon, but we reached the other shore safely. However, we were tunable to drive up. We had to unload half of our baggage, fasten ropes to the tongue of the wagon, so that we could also help in pulling, because our horses were very stiff, and finally we brought our ark safely to the dry shore. Half a mile farther we drove through a wide swamp, aud then up a long hill. We ate our dinner at a creek, close to a plantation. At four o'clock we came to Mr. Altem, ten miles from our last camping place, but it was almost the worst part of our whole journey. Our dear Gottlob, Nathanael, Loesch, etc., joined us again. They had inspected our land somewhat, and six miles from the boundary line found a little house on our land, which a German had built last year, but had abandoned again. We pitched our tent near Mr. Altem's house. Bro. Gottlob, Nathanael and the other brethren, who had been along on our land to-day, ate at Mr. Altem's. Then we lay down to rest, for we were very tired and exhausted. On November 17, we rose early. We had had a cold night. It looked like snow. Several brethren preceded us with picks and axes to cut out a road and to level the banks of the creeks, A mile this side of Altem's we crossed the Down Fork Creek, and then we came to the new road, which runs through our land to the "Etkin" [Yadkin] River. On the right side of the creek is a plantation. The people presented us with two bags full of pumpkinis and said that we could have a whole wagon