Ohio Archæological and Historical Society
Publications, Volume XX

Ohio Archæological and Historical Society Publications, Volume XX [1911], Page 74 [Click for larger image]Page 74

GENERAL HARMAR'S EXPEDITION. BY BASIL MEEK, FREMONT, OHIO. JOSIAH HARMAR was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1753, and there died in 1813. He was a captain in the First Pennsylvania Regiment, Continental Army, Lieutenant Colonel of the same and served till the close of the Revolutionary War. He was in Washington's army from 1778 to 1780. In 1783 he was made Brevet Colonel, First U. S. Regiment. In 1787 he was breveted Brigadier General, by Congress, and assigned to duty in northwest. He became General-in-Chief of the army, 1789-1792, resigning the latter year. General Harmar was Adjutant General of Pennsylvania, 1793-1799, and was active in raising and equipping soldiers of the state for Wayne's campaign against the Indians in the Northwest. Spain, France and England, as we know, contended for dominion over the country of the Northwest, basing their respective claims upon discovery and settlement, but as it would seem the principal ground of contention was more that of occupation than discovery. According to the principle maintained by civilized nations regarding the territorial acquisition by discovery, it was not sufficient as among themselves, to discover alone, but such discovery must be followed by actual settlement or occupancy. Discovery gave only the right initiate; occupancy must follow to consummate it. But there was another power asserting rights to sovereignty, whose claim could not be entirely ignored by the contending powers mentioned. This consisted of the native inhabitants, the North American Indians, whose rights, if occupancy governed, were paramount to all others. They considered themselves to be the rightful owners of the land from which they had sprung. According to their traditions and belief, they were, so to speak, indigenes, their first ancestors having, as a noted Indian chief once said; "Come up out of the ground." They knew nothing

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